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What does John want us to learn about Jesus?
John wants us to know that Jesus was fully human but was also vastly different from anyone else that ever lived. He experienced the warmth of human relationships. Jesus loved Martha, Mary, and Lazarus. He also experiences the grief of loss through death. John says that Jesus was deeply moved in spirit and troubled. But Jesus was also so much more. He had a supernatural awareness (verse 4). He knew what would happen beforehand. He also made a supernatural claim (verse 25). He claimed to be the embodiment of eternal life. Lastly, he had supernatural power (verse 43). No other human has authority over death like Jesus has.
What does Jesus want us to learn about the relationship between living, dying, and believing?
Jesus saw this incident as a teaching opportunity for his disciples. He was glad he wasn't there earlier to heal Lazarus so that his disciples might believe. Notice the connection between life, death, and believing. When you believe in Jesus, death becomes a portal to eternal life.
The Jesus whose birth we celebrate at Christmas is the bread of life, the light of the world, the gate of the sheep, and the resurrection and the life.